Scientists need to perform intensive research and study to design a vaccine against particular microbes. This vaccine is based on the fundamental information such as how it infects the human or animal cell and what is the immune reaction of the infected cell. Researchers have developed different types of vaccines such as live attenuated vaccines, subunit vaccines, inactivated vaccines, conjugate vaccines, toxoid vaccines, DNA vaccines, and recombinant vector vaccines.
In recent years, the recombinant DNA technology has been used to generate new vaccines. This technology has helped scientists to develop recombinant vector vaccines against various bacterial and viral diseases. Recombinant vector vaccines are similar to DNA vaccines; however, these consist of an attenuated viral particle or bacterium as a vector.
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Viruses adsorb on to a cell and inject their genetic material into them. Scientists have taken advantage of this viral nature and developed recombinant viral vector vaccines using attenuated virus as a carrier of the genetic material into the host cell. Recombinant vector vaccines have several advantages over other traditional vaccines. These vaccines closely mimic a natural infection caused by a particular microbe, thereby generating a good immune response against it. Recombinant vector vaccine strategy enables triggering of T- lymphocyte, and antigens, are thus presented to T- cell lymphocytes which generates a strong cell mediated immune response in the body against that particular antigen or microbe.
Moreover, it reduces need of repeat dosage to treat a particular disease. Attenuated bacterium can also be used as an efficient vector to generate recombinant vector vaccines. In this case, genetic material is inserted into the bacterial vector, causing the bacteria to express the antigens of other microorganism onto its surface, generating an immune response. Strong research is being carried out to develop recombinant vector vaccines for rabies, HIV, and measles. Currently, adenovirus vectors, poxvirus vectors, and alphavirus vectors are extensively studied and used to prepare vaccines.
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Rapid development in molecular biology and genetic engineering is the key driver of the global recombinant vector vaccine market. The market is expected to show a rapid growth during the forecast period. However, substantial number of pharmaceutical challenges associated with the development of recombinant vector vaccines and stringent regulatory norms laid by the regulatory bodies is likely to restrain the market.
The global recombinant vector vaccines market can be segmented based on type of vector, disease type, and region. In terms of type of vector, the market can be bifurcated into recombinant viral vector vaccines and recombinant bacterial vector vaccines. The recombinant viral vector vaccines segment holds the maximum share of the market. Based on disease type, the market can be segmented into vector vaccines used to treat various viral and bacterial infections. Recombinant vector vaccines are being developed to treat cancer.
Geographically, the global recombinant vector vaccines market can be segmented into Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, North America, and Middle East & Africa. North America held a major share in 2016, owing to rise in technology advancements in molecular biology and genetic engineering. Increasing awareness, government initiatives, and availability of vector vaccines are expected to boost the growth of the market in Asia Pacific. The recombinant vector vaccines market in Europe is anticipated to grow during the forecast period owing to technological developments and increasing prevalence of infectious diseases.
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Key players in the global recombinant vector vaccines market include Sanofi, Pfizer, Inc., Novartis AG, Neuron Biotech, Merck and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc, CSL Limited, Biological E, and Bharat Biotech.